Dr Cao Zhongjun, a research fellow at Victoria University in Footscray, was set upon by up to seven youths in Empire Street, Footscray, about 11pm (AEDT) on Tuesday.
Dr Cao suffered serious head injuries and spent the past week in a life-threatening condition in Royal Melbourne Hospital with his wife and teenage daughter at his bedside.
Dr Cao died about 5pm today.
Investigators believe Dr Cao left Victoria University shortly before he was assaulted in Empire Street.
Police are appealing for witnesses or anyone with information about the attack to come forward.